Sunday, May 24, 2020

Sleep Habits And Academic Performance - 2225 Words

Sleep Habits and Academic Performance Johnny Christopherson University of South Dakota Literature Review Many factors such as self-concept, moods and sleepiness influence the academic performance and motivation of college students. Research collections and recent data have suggested that sleep is very important and beneficial for memory, comprehension, attention, and academic success. This data has uncovered a noticeable relationship between amount and quality of sleep with learning abilities and resulting academic performance. Sleep deprivation can result in sleepiness and impaired neurocognitive and psychomotor performance (AlDabal and BaHammam, 2011). With higher demands being placed on academic performance, students may begin to develop poor sleep and nap patterns, which may in turn negatively impact their school performance. Often students may not even notice that they are on a skewed sleeping pattern or feeling sleep deprived. Sleep is a very important factor to a human’s well-being, health and behavior. A person’s ability to complete tasks and to remain mentally sharp and focused depends on the amount of sleep to avoid being sleep deprived. The history of sleep research as been traced back to as early as the 19th century. According to a recent National Sleep Foundation’s Sleep in America Poll, U.S. adults sleep about seven hours every night, a decrease of about two hours per night since the 19th century (Nation Sleep Foundation, 2005). And according toShow MoreRelatedFactors That Affect The Academic Performance Of College Students Essay976 Words   |  4 Pagesfactors that affect the academic performance of college students. Some of these factors include family, personal habits, attitude, and social activities. Another important factor is the sleeping habits of the student. Sleeping is one of the most significant basic need that humans need. It is a biological necessity that plays a n important role in each individual’s health. Sleep is not only important for health, but it is also important for learning and cognitive performance, such as enhancing memoryRead MoreEffects Of Sleep Deprivation On Academic Performance1557 Words   |  7 PagesEffect of Sleep Deprivation on Academic Performance Less sleep causes less focus on academic performance. Sleep deprivation is a problem when it comes to academic performance; therefore students should learn how to manage their time and get enough sleep. Many have argued and many others agreed that sleep deprivation does have a big effect on the performance of students in school. For those who don t agree probably think that sleep deprivation has nothing to do with the bad performance of studentsRead MoreSleep Can Improve Learning And Memory Essay1362 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract Sleep can improve learning and memory. However whether the length and type of sleep whether this correlates to academic performance is unclear. Therefore the aim of the proposed experiment is to research whether length and type of sleep experienced correlates with academic performance It is hypothesised that longer sleep with more Non-REM sleep will correlate with higher academic performance. Participants will be randomly selected 1st year psychology students taking a mandatory 100 levelRead MoreComparing Academic Performance And Class Start Times Between Morning, Day, And Night Classes1530 Words   |  7 PagesExamining Differences in Academic Performance and Class Start Times between Morning, Day, and Night Classes within WVU university students Academic achievement among university students is a primary goal amongst the student body for obvious reasons. Generally, a student’s performance reflects how successful they will be within their courses and produces their overall grade point average, GPA. Although a student’s academic achievement can be determined in many ways, GPA is a primary tool used to measureRead MoreDoes Limited Duration Of Sleep Affect Academic Performance?1673 Words   |  7 Pagesduration of sleep affect academic performance? Academic performance is utilized worldwide in order to determine an individual’s career success and in some instances intelligence. The United States utilizes academic performance as an indicator of character and potential; often individuals are defined by how well they perform in academic areas. The United States measures academic performance through grade point averages, exam results and standardized tests. The education system is based on academic performance;Read MoreSleep Deprivation And Academic Performance1430 Words   |  6 PagesSleep Deprivation and Academic Performance in Adolescents Sleep deprivation is an increasing issue with adolescents. Statistics show that 60% of high schoolers report extreme daytime sleepiness. 20% to 33% of those high schools report falling asleep in class at least once during the week. Daytime sleepiness is only a small issue about sleep deprivation in students. Sleep deprivation negatively impacts school performance adolescent students because it interferes with brain development, create moodRead MoreThe Connection Between Sleep And One Specific Kind Of Performance1358 Words   |  6 Pagesconnection between sleep and one specific kind of performance, which is academic performance, among university students. This chapter framework the methodology that can be practical to attain the goal and objectives of the research study. Therefore, suitable preparation and thorough analysis are compulsory in planning the methodology procedure to get the expected result. A self-report questionnaire was utilized in this research study to measure sleep -related variables and educational performance, of universityRead MoreDoes Lower Grade Point Average Equate to Poor Health? Essay639 Words   |  3 PagesTrockel, Barnes and Egget (2000) they hypothesized that poor health behaviors would be greater amongst those with low grade point averages. The predictors of the correlation study were: exercise, eating, sleep habits, mood states, perceived stress, time management, social support, spiritual habits, number of hours worked per week, gender and age. The outcome variable was the students’ grade point averages. The goal of the study was to see which health behavior affected grade point averages the mostRead MoreSleep Quality And Academic Performance Essay1510 Words   |  7 Pagesfirst fundamental routine of sleep changes dramatically. College students rarely find themselves getting about eight hours of sleep every day. Thus started the idea of how a student’s academic performance can be affected by the amount of sleep t hey get. The research article, â€Å"Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students: A Wake-Up Call for College Psychologists† written by Steven P. Gilbert and Cameron C. Weaver, represents the perfect study on how sleep quality and quantity can affectRead MoreSleep Quality And Academic Performance890 Words   |  4 Pages Sleep Quality Affecting College Student’s Academic Performance Sleep is one of the few necessities that are needed for humans to function and overall survive. People, generally adults, fail to realize the need for sleep when they are constantly working around the clock. This sort of deficiency leads to a common sleep disorder called sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can affect teens and working adults but is seen predominately among college students. College students are succumbed to dedicating

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

SINCLAIR Surname Meaning and Origin

Taken from the hermit St. Clare or St. Clere, Sinclair is a derivation of the St. Claire surname, from the Latin clarus, meaning pure, renowned, illustrious. It was often bestowed as a habitational surname for someone from one of several places named for the dedication of their churches to St. Clarus, such as  Saint-Clair-sur-Elle in Manche, Normandy, France. SINCLAIR is the 79th most popular surname in Scotland. Surname Origin:  Scottish, English Alternate Surname Spellings:  SINCLAIRE, SINCLAR, ST CLAIR, SINKLER, SENCLAR, SENCLER   Famous People with the Surname SINCLAIR Upton Sinclair - American novelist and social crusaderClive Sinclair - British entrepreneur and inventorMalcolm Sinclair - Swedish nobleman whose  assassination eventually sparked the Russo-Swedish War of 1741–1743 Genealogy Resources for the Surname SINCLAIR Common Scottish Surnames Their MeaningsUncover the meaning of your Scottish last name with this free guide to Scottish surnames meanings and origins. Clan SinclairLearn about the history of Clan Sinclair on this website of the Clan Chief and explore links to websites of the Clan Associations. Sinclair Family Genealogy ForumSearch or browse past posts in this genealogy forum dedicated to researchers of the Sinclair surname. Sinclair Family Crest - Its Not What You ThinkContrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Sinclair family crest or coat of arms for the Sinclair surname.  Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted. FamilySearch - SINCLAIR GenealogyExplore over 830,000 historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Sinclair surname and its variations on the free FamilySearch website, hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. SINCLAIR Surname Family Mailing ListsRootsWeb hosts a free mailing lists for researchers of the Sinclair surname. DistantCousin.com - SINCLAIR Genealogy Family HistoryExplore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Sinclair. The Sinclair Genealogy and Family Tree PageBrowse genealogy records and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the popular last name Sinclair from the website of Genealogy Today. ----------------------- References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil.  Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Dorward, David.  Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998. Fucilla, Joseph.  Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges.  A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick.  Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Reaney, P.H.  A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997. Smith, Elsdon C.  American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. Back toGlossary of Surname Meanings Origins

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effective Literary Form of Foreshadowing Free Essays

O’Connor effectively uses the literary device of foreshadowing to create an atmosphere of suspense for a family that is doomed. There are several hints that point to the fate of the family in both the overall theme of a world of change and chaos and in specific lines from the text. Death and doom are frequently discussed and certain descriptive phrases, as early as the first sentence lead a reader to believe that doom is impending. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effective Literary Form of Foreshadowing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Specifically the grandmother and her choices and her description of choices all contribute to the foreshadowing. Her choice of dress and her reasons given for that is one example, as is the cat she chooses to bring and the animal’s role in the final event that leads to the death of the family. The Grandmother’s choice to take the dirt road and her mistake of direction is the final example of the foreshadowing that can be contributed to the reader’s sense of an almost inevitable and negative end. Firstly, the Grandmother does not wish to go on the trip, but agrees to go with certain pretenses. She refuses to leave her beloved cat at home while the family goes on their trip. The cat, â€Å"Pitty Sing†, is hidden in a basket as the Grandmother fears that the cat may die. O’Connor writes, â€Å"she was afraid he might brush against one of the gas burners and accidentally asphyxiate himself. Her son, Bailey didn’t like to arrive at a motel with a cat† (1135-1136). Her mention of both death and the inconvenience that bringing the cat would impose on the family shows both foreshadowing and irony, as the cat does cause an accident and inconveniences the family in the worst way. Both the concealed cat displayed by O’Connor as the Grandmother’s disregard for her family’s wishes and her lost sense of direction, as well contribute to the danger that the family is placed in. The dirt road that the Grandmother advises the family to go down is explained in detail in an ominous manner and the plot turns even more ominous as she realizes that she has the wrong road. O’Connor writes regarding the character that a horrible thought came to her†¦ her eyes dilated and her feet jumped up†¦ the instant the valise moved, the newspaper top she had over the basket rose with a snarl and Pitty Sing, the cat, sprang onto Bailey’s shoulder (1140). This incident does lead to a car accident on this abandoned, old road. Therefore, both the choice to bring the fateful animal and the choice to take the family in a wrong direction, sends a message of a foreshadowed and foreshortened future for the family. Finally, at the beginning of the story, when the cat is introduced into the plot, the Grandmother’s deception and dress are detailed. The foreshadowing of her outfit and accessories point to the fact that she has designed herself for death, in case that it comes. Her collars and cuffs were white organdy trimmed with lace and at her neckline she had pinned a purple spray of cloth violets containing a sachet. In case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once she was a lady (1136). It should be noted that the idea or phrase of the word accident or accidental is used frequently in the story to show foreshadowing. In the citation with the cat and the uproar, there follows an automobile accident, where after the children scream several times both on pages 1140 and 1141, â€Å"We’ve had an ACCIDENT! †. The foreshadowing of the usage of accident is only paralleled by the actions leading to the family’s doom. In conclusion, O’Connor effectively uses examples of foreshadowing in â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find†. Three of these examples illustrate this in the previous paragraphs and all tie in together to help the reader and literary critic understand that the story has deeper meaning and context than one may originally think. The frequent reference to accident or fear that something may happen accidentally all contribute to the undertones and overtones of death, deception, and doom in a world of change and chaos. How to cite The Effective Literary Form of Foreshadowing, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Nursing The High Quality Health Care

Question: Discuss about the Nursing for The High Quality Health Care? Answer: The present assignment defines the safe level of staffing and gives an explanation of the reason staffing level comes up as an issue. The assignment also puts up a discussion on the extent to which the concerned organisations and government are successful in handling the matter of staffing levels. It also has a focus on the belief in the National Health Service (NHS) and further takes into account the policy delivered by other institutions. Nurses' role in developing and formulating polices and their impact on the safety of patients is also discussed. In the end, policy evaluation is undertaken along with the analysis of Francis report and the influence on patients as a result of policy implementation. Safe staffing level refers to the practice where the level is sufficient for handling the environment of huge health burden, and patients are delivered care by certified nurses. According to the Nursing and Midwifery Council appropriate staffing level is required for the best possible health care services. The importance of safe staffing lies in that it has the potential of making an impact on the safety of the patients as nursing staffing gives care for these people in a suitable manner. Insufficient staffing has, therefore, a negative impact on patient (RCN, 2010). As per the Francis Report, failure recorded in Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust can be attributed to chronic nursing staffing shortage, having a negative influence on the care delivered to the patients admitted to the health care setting. Griffiths (2014) emphasised that ensuring the presence of adequate staffing in health care settings has a direct effect on the reduction of medication and medical errors, a decrea se of falls, mortality rate, infections and increase of patient satisfaction. This is in alignment with what the American Nurses Association (2014) states in this relation. According to the association, the decrease in nurse fatigue, improvement of nurse retention, the decrease in nurse burnout, enhancement of job satisfaction are all related to the prevalence of sufficient nursing staffing. In the context of all the discussion above, the problem of insufficient nursing staffing was addressed by the government to construct policies like the NICE guidelines (2014), Hard Truths (2014) and the Berwick Keogh (2013). All these made a desirable response to the Francis Report Enquiry on the poor quality of care delivered at the Mid Staffs and hed out a helping hand for tackling the issue of staffing levels for improving provisions of healthcare (Department of Health, 2013). Buse et als (2012) states that Royal College of Nursing (RCN) is a policy driver that had the aim of providing a strong and supportive framework in order to fulfil the targets of productivity and achieve efficiency for intended improvement of care quality and reduction of health costs in a suitable manner (Royal College of Nursing, 2013). Moreover, the report from RCN (2013) provides support to the recommendations regarding improvement of nursing staffing levels by responding to 290 Robert Francis recommendations and mentioning that a separate sector must be present for ensuring that no such failures are repeated in the future like the incidence of Mid Staffordshire (Royal College of Nursing, 2013). RCN (2013) adds to the subject by suggesting that the NHS must out the focus on care that is solely patient-centered. The burden of having a promising health cares service is therefore on the NHS employers for giving nursing staff the suitable support, resources and time or delivering the care worth mentioning with good ambition. On the contrary to Francis Report, 2013, David Cameron, the Prime Minister consulted a lead healthcare expert Professor Don Berwick to look into the matter of enlisting out the needs of the health care system that would reduce the harm to the patients to zero (NHS Employers, 2013). It was emphasised that NHS must take an initiative for making health care more safe to the patients and enabling a culture oriented care system that has full dedication on carrying out learning and improvement and strives in a continuous manner to reduce harm made to the patients that can be easily avoided. This was contradicted by RCN (2012) and Thungjaroenkul (2007) who said tha t there are instances of failures showed by NHS where the patients were not given safe care practices due to the fact that a minority of the NHS organisations could not be financially sustainable and, therefore, had to compromise on nursing staffing. The result was unsafe care quality and insufficient provisions of health care. Keogh (2013) mentioned that the NHS Director had the responsibility of giving justifications for the failings of the 14 trusts in England accountable for around 13000 additional deaths in the last ten years. As per the report of the The Sunday Telegraph (2007), a section of the patients having access to NHS are no longer having the faith they used to have on NHS and are choosing to go abroad for health care services. The reason for discriminating out NHS is long waiting lists and increased risk of infection. However, people not being able to afford to travel abroad for health care or not willing to do so remain on the long waiting list of the NHS in the United Kingdom. Jeremy Hunt, the Health Secretary, has ordered tightening up on NHS spending as an initiative to control the finances in order to reduce wastage. He was recorded stating that cut down of costs can be achieved by not recruiting agency staff while bringing improvements in frontline patient care. This step ensures to spiral down the staff bill that has the costing of 3.3 billion pounds per year. Moreover, new rules will make sure that agencies not present on the authorised framework are not used and will control the total spe nding for each trust functioning under NHS in cases of financial difficulties (DH, 2015 Kleebauer, 2015). In addition, the functioning of agency staff has witnessed rise to 3.3 billion pounds from a mere 1.8 billion pounds in three years in order to help out in nursing staffing. This drives the government to bring changes in the recruitment of the hospitals by recruiting more permanent staffs on the basis that there are evidence on better staffing refining the patient care (DH, 2015 Kleebauer, 2015). The main priority of the formulation of policies in the Francis Report was laid upon working together with the aim of ensuring that patients are kept first in the priority list while taking any decisions in professional conduct. Jeremy Hunt from Hard Truths' supports that patient must come before all other aspects taken up by NHS professionals. This takes into account staffs, patients, their families, carers, professionals and communities outside and inside the NHS. Needs of the patients and the community also comes before the boundaries of the health care organisation (Department of Health, 2014). On the contrary, Thungjaroenkul et al. (2007) reports that nine out of ten health care settings are not succeeding in meeting the set targets of delivering safe levels of patient care by nurses, the reason accountable to nursing. The author also reports that nurses are under immense pressure for caring for their patients in various adverse situations that have a negative impact on the overall care. It implies that increase in a number of nurses increases the satisfaction of the patients that can conversely translate to imply that decrease in nurse number reduces patient satisfaction. In matters of patient care, the Francis Inquiry recommends that NHS must take initiatives for improving care. It also states that the case of Mid Staffordshire was a result of insufficient staffing leading to patient negligence, falls, high rate of mortality. The guidelines put forward by National Institute of Health NICE (2014) has a section on the significance of safe staffing in wards with the aim of ensuring that all get the care they are worthy of. It is mentioned in the guideline that there is no particular ratio of nurses and patient that is applicable to the health care setting across the globe. This implies that each unit must address the safety of the patients by determining the requirements of the patients. Keogh (2014) agrees that patient safety is breached when there are insufficient nursing staffing and improper training of the professionals to deliver care. Nurses must not be considered as archetypical leaders (George et al 2014). However, they are pivotal in the health care delivery. This draws a conclusion that nurses must be given constant support and encouragement to have a major role in bringing about clinical innovation and changes. Nurses experiencing the greater extent of empowerments have more chances of engaging in the innovative behaviour (DH, 2008). The Productive Ward (PW) programme is a strategy put in place for empowering nurses with information and skills for governing care (NHSI, 2011; White et al. 2014). The module-based program is for enabling nursing staff to give more time to direct patient care by bringing improvements in processes and environment. This is in congruency with enhancing staff and developing the quality of care (Armitage et al. 2011, Lennard, 2012). For fulfilling the aim, the program requires to meet the QIPP challenge and align the interventions with clinically driven decisions (DH, 2008). Safe Staffing Alliance has stated that ration of nurses to the patient must be not more than one is to eight in order to maintain the safe level. This is the minimum acceptable level as nurses taking care of more than eight patients at a time increases risk of death and unsafe incidences (Safe Staffing Alliance, 2013; Hughes, 2014). Gregory (2013) and Patterson (2011) reported that nurses were working in settings where there is a nursing shortage suffer from job dissatisfaction and has high patient caseloads and experience more burnout. Moreover, nurse disillusion leads to compromise in values and standards. Both Keogh (2013) and Patterson (2011) concluded that nursing staffing shortfall makes it tough for professionals to practice excellent care delivery. Keogh (2013) agreed with the above writer and elaborated that understaffing leads to a decline of presentism, thereby leaving few staff ready to work. This results in pressure on the nurses and they are forced to leave the jobs tha t lead to their exhaustion and burnout. The valuable experience they have are lost from the system, and this results in a skill gap that is difficult to fulfil. Service impairment is the ultimate result. Unison (2013) gives an opinion in this regard that effective skill mix has a pivotal role in addition to safe levels of staffing. Thus, health care organisations must have the suitable balance of nursing staff for proper care delivery (Unison, 2013). Improper staffing within the NHS has a deep impact on the safety of patients as complexities of nursing staffing is the main factor. Eleven hospitals were taken under consideration for special measures since most of them failed to deliver patient care and Jeremy Hunt, the Health Secretary, said that after the analysis of the 14 trusts, high death were reported. The problems entrenched in the health care system and gave rise to tough actions being taken up. The problems identified by Jeremy encompassed the fact that patients are constantly being neglected due to poor leadership and staffing issues (Tingle, 2013; Keogh, 2014). It was supported by Tingle (2013) and Keogh (2014) reporting on a nation wide Unison survey undertaken on 3000 nurses that 65% nurses think patient care is being neglected as the result of the situation where nurses do not get adequate time to take care of a patient. This lack of time was confirmed from the same study when 45% of the participants stated that they had to give care to more than eight patients at a time in spite of the recommendation to have a nurse and patient ratio of 1:4. The response of Unison was that they had the knowledge about nurses feeling the priority of minimum staffing and felt that the aspect is fundamental to care quality and patient safety. It also emphasised that it aims to ensure nurses have the opportunity to deliver compassionate and safe care to the best of their ability and contribute to care provision that is valued by all (Unison 2015). The Francis Report (2013) has being empowering nurses to react when they are facing issues in nursing staffing. If such reports are not made, there are risks of having poor quality care and the result might be high mortality rate. Nurses, in any case, want to deliver best possible care and want others to do the same too. However, there lies a concern that nurses are speaking out their views may be harried and face bullying. The Guardian highlighted that a section of the staff raise concerns about the unsafe level of staffing but actions were nor taken up. The Francis report identified that safe staffing issues are addressed by the government and they are trying to ensure that issues are sorted out fast so that reduction of patient harm can be reduced (Campbell, 2013). NICE (2014) put forward new guidelines and in that it has stated that patients have the right to receive the best possible care regardless of the day time, week and type of clinical need. Ford (2014) and Keogh (2014) highlighted that there is a necessity to have red flag' events. A red flag means that a system for management of critical staffing levels is initiated. Definition of such events can be put in place locally. However, there would be setbacks like users of services not allocated with significant aspects of supervision. The red flags would highlight the presence of danger in the wards in relation to insufficient staffing. Nurses would be alerted to take actions and ensure that care is not compromised. Moreover, the red flags help in ensuring that efficient and safe levels of staffing are present for rendering services. This response on patient care comes as the aftermath of Mid Staff scandal (Nice, 2014; Hughes, 2014). Unison (2013) states that measures are to be taken for introducing patient safety measures. This is a paramount aspect in health care settings. This brings the need of staffs in the healthcare setting to flag up situations they feel are danger for patient safety, and the organisations must provide constant support to these staffs. This can be done by forcing them to maintain good guidelines for practice and lead to maintenance of quality services. However, the nurses may be forced to cut corners. For example, nurses under pressure and having no time to record patient information in a correct manner can give the delegate tasks to other nurses who have the proper training (Unison, 2015). Unison (2015) expected that the results of 2015 survey would be more positive and have more significant improvements since the government claims that it has brought the increase in nursing numbers as per the guidance of safe staffing levels of NICE. The Francis Report and Berwick recommendations state to improve staffing levels. However, when Unison puts forward a comparison fo the surveys of the previous years, it is evident that no improvements have been made in relation to safe staffing as many nurses till continue to care for more than eight patients at a time. This leads to harm to the patients. Unison, therefore, states that it wants staffing levels to be improved and minimum patient to nurse ration to be identified. There is also the necessity to have red flag events raised by the nurses as per the NICE guidelines. This also puts forward the need of reviewing the guidelines of NICE. This review would assess the compliance with effectiveness and recommendations of red flag even ts (Unison, 2015). The Royal College of Nursing has been accepting a number of suggestions in the Francis Report. The reaction of the government is that developments are to be made for improving staffing levels by the strengthening the staff planning and regulatory processes. The development of appliances and staffing-level standards is a chance to ensure that evidence-based practice is undertaken. The CQC's standards are to be abided by in this regard, and this would manage the health care system. Moreover, this must have a clear picture of both the public and the contributors on what the scenario of staffing levels are, skill mix and patient and nurse ratio. The RCN puts composition of many personal organising resources in a strong position that aids in the invention of the nursing appliances (RCN, 2013). As per the policy statement, the foundation for bringing changes has been kept along the recommendations of Robert Francis. The observations of the CQC would be established on a more simple position, and this brings the necessity to take up durable actions to address inadequate staffing level and reduction in quality of care (Tinlge, 2013). Moreover, the CQC observations would make an appeal to the providers and would consolidate the basic qualities that will be prosecutable and will reflect the vital requirements of a central quality service. In conclusion, the present writing is an attempt to explore policy drivers and influence of nursing staffing levels on care quality within the NHS. It has established the facts that negative influence is associated with improper staffing levels on the experiences of the patient and nurses. In relation with impact on patient care, it has been shown that nurses have a tendency to work under pressure because of having to take care of eight patients at a time. Insufficient staffing levels lead to stressed nurses, burnouts, medication errors, high staff turnover and loss of interest. In relation to patient safety, it has been stated that inadequate staffing levels result in negligence of patients and poor quality of care. Such incidences of patient care are evidenced by the scandal of Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust identified by the Francis Report (2013). The report drove the government to set out policies for staffing levels. The care given to Mid Staffordshire was not up to the standard, and it led to high mortality rate, pressure scores, falls and infections. As mentioned that policies have been ensuring patient care, productive methods are to be used for empowering the nurses. The assignment also states that patient has lost faith in the NHS. The government needs to ensure that staffing levels are maintained in all NHS hospitals for delivering the high quality health care.

Monday, March 30, 2020

Astronaut Neil Armstrong Biography

Astronaut Neil Armstrong Biography On July 20, 1969, one of the most momentous actions of all time took place not on Earth but on another world. Astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped out of the lunar lander Eagle, descended a ladder, and set foot on the surface of the Moon. Then, he spoke the most famous words of the 20th Century: Its one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. His action  was the culmination of years of research and development, success and failure, all sustained by both the U.S. and then-Soviet Union in the race to the Moon. Fast Facts: Neil Alden Armstrong Birth: August 5, 1930Death: August 25, 2012Parents: Stephen Koenig Armstrong and Viola Louise EngleSpouse: Married twice, once to Janet Armstrong, then to Carol Held Knight, 1994Children: Karen Armstrong, Eric Armstrong, Mark ArmstrongEducation: Purdue University, Masters Degree from USC.Main Accomplishments: Navy test pilot, NASA astronaut for Gemini missions and Apollo 11, which he commanded. The first person to set foot on the Moon. Early Life Neil Armstrong was born August 5, 1930, on a farm in Wapakoneta, Ohio. His parents, Stephen K. Armstrong and Viola Engel, raised him in a series of towns in Ohio while his father worked as a state auditor. As a youth, Neil held many jobs, but none more exciting than one at the local airport. After starting flying lessons at the age of 15, he got his pilots license on his 16th birthday, before he had even earned a drivers license. After his high school years at Blume High School in Wapakonetica, Armstrong decided to pursue a degree in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University before committing to serving in the Navy.   In 1949, Armstrong was called to Pensacola Naval Air Station before he could complete his degree. There he earned his wings at the age of 20, the youngest pilot in his squadron. He flew 78 combat mission in Korea, earning three medals, including the Korean Service Medal. Armstrong was sent home before the conclusion of the war and finished his bachelors degree in 1955. Testing New Boundaries After college, Armstrong decided to try his hand as a test pilot. He applied to  National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) - the agency that preceded NASA - as a test pilot, but was turned down. So, he took a post at Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. However, it was less than a year before Armstrong transferred to Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) in California to work at NACAs High Speed Flight Station. During his tenure at Edwards Armstrong conducted test flights of more than 50 types of experimental aircraft, logging 2,450 hours of flight time. Among his accomplishments in these aircraft, Armstrong was able to achieve speeds of Mach 5.74 (4,000 mph or 6,615 km/h) and an altitude of 63,198 meters (207,500 feet), but in the X-15 aircraft. Armstrong had a technical efficiency in his flying that was the envy of most of his colleagues. However, he was criticized by some of the non-engineering pilots, including Chuck Yeager and Pete Knight, who observed that his technique was too mechanical. They argued that flying was, at least in part, feel, that it was something that didnt come naturally to the engineers. This sometimes got them into trouble. Neil Armstrong was a test pilot before coming to NASA. This shows him at the Dryden Research center in 1960 after he became a NASA research test pilot. He flew missions in the first X-15 rocket plane. NASA   While Armstrong was a comparatively successful test pilot, he was involved in several aerial incidents that didnt work out so well. One of the most famous occurred when he was sent in an F-104 to investigate Delamar Lake as a potential emergency landing site. After an unsuccessful landing damaged the radio and hydraulic system, Armstrong headed toward Nellis Air Force Base. When he tried to land, the tail hook of the plane lowered due to the damaged hydraulic system and caught the arresting wire on the airfield. The plane slid out of control down the runway, dragging the anchor chain along with it. The problems didnt end there. Pilot Milt Thompson was dispatched in an F-104B to retrieve Armstrong. However, Milt had never flown that aircraft and ended up blowing one of the tires during a hard landing. The runway was then closed for the second time that day to clear the landing path of debris. A third aircraft was sent to Nellis, piloted by Bill Dana. But Bill almost landed his T-33 Shooting Star long, prompting Nellis to send the pilots back to Edwards using ground transportation. Crossing Into Space In 1957, Armstrong was selected for the Man In Space Soonest (MISS) program. Then in September 1963, he was selected as the first American civilian to fly in space.   Three years later, Armstrong was the command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission, which launched March 16. Armstrong and his crew performed the first-ever docking with another spacecraft, an unmanned Agena target vehicle. After 6.5 hours in orbit they were able to dock with the craft, but due to complications, they were unable to complete what would have been the third-ever extra-vehicular activity, now referred to as a spacewalk. Armstrong also served as the CAPCOM, who is typically the only person who to communicate directly with the astronauts during missions to space. He did this for the Gemini 11 mission. However, it was not until the Apollo program began that Armstrong again ventured into space. The Apollo Program Armstrong  was  commander of the backup crew of the Apollo 8 mission, though he had been originally scheduled to back-up the Apollo 9 mission. (Had he remained as the  backup commander, he would have been slated to command Apollo 12, not  Apollo 11.) Initially, Buzz Aldrin, the  Lunar Module Pilot, was to be the first to  set foot on the Moon. However, because of the positions of the astronauts in the module, it would require Aldrin to physically crawl over Armstrong to reach the hatch. As such, it was decided that it would be easier for Armstrong to exit the module first upon landing. Apollo 11 touched down on the surface of the Moon on July 20, 1969, at which point Armstrong declared, Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed. Apparently, Armstrong had only seconds of fuel left before the thrusters would cut out. If that had happened, the lander would have plummeted to the surface. That didnt happen, much to everyones relief. Armstrong and Aldrin exchanged congratulations before quickly preparing the lander to launch off the surface in case of an emergency. Humanitys Greatest Achievement On July 20, 1969, Armstrong made his way down the ladder from the Lunar Lander and, upon reaching the bottom declared Im going to step off the LEM now. As his left boot made contact with the surface he then spoke the words that defined a generation, Thats one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind. This grainy, black-and-white image taken on the Moon shows Neil Armstrong about to step off the Eagle lander and onto the surface of the Moon for the first time. NASA   About 15 minutes after exiting the module, Aldrin joined him on the surface and they began investigating the lunar surface. They planted the American flag, collected rock samples, took images and video, and transmitted their impressions back to Earth. The final task carried out by Armstrong was to leave behind a package of memorial items in remembrance of deceased Soviet cosmonauts  Yuri Gagarin  and Vladimir Komarov, and  Apollo 1  astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and  Roger Chaffee. All told, Armstrong and Aldrin spent 2.5 hours on the lunar surface, paving the way for other Apollo missions. The astronauts then returned to Earth, splashing down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. Armstrong was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed upon civilians, as well as a host of other medals from NASA and other countries. Life After Space Astronaut Neil Armstrong at the Legends of Aerospace event at the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum on March 14, 2010, in NYC. Neilson Barnard/Getty Images for Intrepid Sea, Air, and Space Museum.  Ã‚   After his Moon trip, Neil Armstrong completed a masters degree in aerospace engineering at the University of Southern California and worked  as an administrator with NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). He next turned his attention to education and accepted a teaching position at the University of Cincinnati with the Department of Aerospace Engineering. He held this appointment until 1979. Armstrong also served on two investigation panels. The first was after the  Apollo 13  incident, while the second came after the  Challenger explosion. Armstrong lived much of his life after NASA life outside the public eye, and  worked in private industry and consulted for NASA until his retirement. He made occasional public appearances until shortly before his death on August 25, 2012. His ashes were buried at sea in the Atlantic Ocean the following month.  His words and deeds live on in the annals of space exploration, and he was widely admired by space explorers and space enthusiasts around the world. Sources Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. â€Å"Neil Armstrong.†Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica, Inc., 1 Aug. 2018, www.britannica.com/biography/Neil-Armstrong.Chaikin, Andrew.A Man on the Moon. Time-Life, 1999.Dunbar, Brian. â€Å"Biography of Neil Armstrong.†NASA, NASA, 10 Mar. 2015, www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/bios/neilabio.html.Wilford, John Noble. â€Å"Neil Armstrong, First Man on the Moon, Dies at 82.†The New York Times, The New York Times, 25 Aug. 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/08/26/science/space/neil-armstrong-dies-first-man-on-moon.html. Edited by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

They As a Nonbinary Pronoun

They As a Nonbinary Pronoun They As a Nonbinary Pronoun They As a Nonbinary Pronoun By Mark Nichol A few weeks ago, an acquaintance visited me, and as my visitor exited the parked car, I saw that it was still occupied. My visitor, standing before me, made a reference to â€Å"they,† but only one person sat in the vehicle, and I was momentarily puzzled. I have written here before about my support for acceptance of they as a gender-inclusive singular pronoun; I agree with many people that he is no longer acceptable to refer to all people, and that alternatives, while often reasonable and effective, do not preclude the need to fill a curious gap in English vocabulary. However, this incident points out a new wrinkle in the issue. When the person sitting in the passenger seat got out of the car, it was obvious to me that this was someone who most observers would identify as a woman. However, two factors explained my acquaintance’s use of they to refer to the passenger: First, the person had an androgynous appearance. More significantly, my acquaintance is transgender, and a gender activist. I have been comfortable in the company of a number of people who do not conform to binary gender roles. However, this was the first time, to my knowledge, that I had been introduced to someone who rejects binary gender assignment and prefers to be identified by the fluid alternative they. This is not a sociopolitical forum, so discussion about the merit of this philosophy is irrelevant. The purpose of this post is to point out that many people do not consider themselves male or female, whether they align with physical and social characteristics associated with one gender or the other or not- and that regardless of your opinion about this issue, it exists, and it is one that writers likely will have to address at some point, if they have not already done so. Unfortunately, shifting attitudes about gender in our culture complicate expression- and, most pertinently here, composition. People are increasingly asserting a right to self-identify with a neutral use of the pronoun they. To them, gender is not relevant or significant- and that is often true. But when I met the person who prompted this post, I wondered whether my acquaintance, who was born â€Å"male† but identifies as female, also prefers the ambiguous pronoun. I didn’t ask, however, and when I used she to refer to my acquaintance, I was not corrected. Ultimately, when someone chooses to assert an identity, it is that person’s responsibility to call attention to that identification if it is relevant. For example, if I am going to speak or write of someone whose presentation is ambiguous in terms of gender, it is not my obligation to guess how that person self-identifies. But I am obliged to honor the person’s stated choice of self-identification, and that is a consideration that professional and lay writers alike will need to make as our society slowly but inexorably evolves to embrace a more fluid approach to gender identity. If it is relevant to mention a person’s gender in writing, a reporter can make one of three choices when the subject asserts gender self-identity that may not conform to the reporter’s perception: Accept, reject, or circumvent. I strongly recommend the first option, oppose the second one with equally vehemence, and acknowledge that the third choice is valid but indefensible if the subject insists on acknowledgment of his, her, or their self-identification and/or if the context requires it. In summary, they as a nonbinary gender indicator is going mainstream, and therefore is entering the lexicon as such. I’ll let the Associated Press Style Book have the last word: â€Å"In stories about people who identify as neither male nor female or ask not to be referred to as he/she/him/her:  Use the person’s name in place of a pronoun, or otherwise reword the sentence, whenever possible. If they/them/their use is essential, explain in the text that the person prefers a gender-neutral pronoun. Be sure that the phrasing does not imply more than one person.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Spelling category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Writing Prompts 101Comma Before But50 Synonyms for "Song"

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Critically discuss Plato's theory of the psyche and relate it with Essay

Critically discuss Plato's theory of the psyche and relate it with managing today - Essay Example Plato understood that the human psyche is in constant exchange with the external social, cultural and political environment. The similarities between Plato’s and Freud’s conceptions of the psyche are relevant to modern business management because Freudian psychoanalysis is well entrenched in Human Resources Management practice. The continued utility of Plato’s theory of the psyche to modern managers is illustrated by its perusal in management seminars and workshops. Even the process of knowledge creation and transfer prevalent in management practice today has parallels to Plato’s ideas on knowledge. Plato’s theory of psyche remains an eminent source of wisdom and counsel to leaders in various fields today. Introduction: Plato is one of the most influential philosophers from the Hellenistic Age, whose ideas are still relevant to modern times. Business management as we know it today was not a preoccupation of Plato. For that matter, management of busi ness enterprises under a capitalist framework is a modern phenomenon ushered in by the Industrial Revolution of late 18th century. But Plato was a polymath, who forwarded treatises on a range of subjects. Questions of what constitutes good governance under a monarch was a focus of his thought. When we look closely, there are many parallels between the structure of a kingdom and that of a business corporation. Both are more or less authoritarian institutions with a top-down power hierarchy. With the net worth of many Fortune 500 corporations is equivalent to the GDP of some nations, corporate houses are rightly referred to as ‘empires’ in management literature. Hence, although the thoughts of Plato and that of Peter Drucker are separated by two millennia, the former can be seen as a management guru in his own right. In particular, Plato’s speculations and assertions on the nature of human psyche have withstood the test of time and are a useful aid to modern manage rs. This essay will flesh out this thesis in detail. Body of Essay: It is fair to state that of all ancient Greek philosophers, it was Plato, who defined and characterized the nature of the psyche in great detail. Plato was the one who â€Å"defined the abstract and the rational as equivalent to the moral good. He equated self-knowledge with self-restraint, and proclaimed that knowledge is virtue.... Lack of knowledge and the irrational, were equated with moral evil, and then, with madness.† (Buckley, 2001, p. 452) For Plato, the ‘soma’ makes up the physical body, while the psyche is the what animates a body and gives it life. Psyche is what distinguishes a living creature from a dead one. The body, on the other hand, plays host to the psyche and can either restrict or extend the expression of psyche. According to Plato, the psyche is not made of substance and it is immortal. Plato divided human psyche into three components – the rational, affective and ap petitive. In simple terms, examples of appetites or desires are thirst, hunger, etc. The ability to overcome the appetites is the function of the rational. And the appetitive, also called the Spirit is the moral compass as attuned by social norms. He defined conflict as a â€Å"struggle between the rational and the appetitive portions with each trying to enlist the affective portion on its side." (Buckley, 2001, p.453) For example, conflicts could arise in simple situation like these: I know it is wrong to lie, but can’